4.1.3 Expectations of improvement may lead to analgesia

Expectation plays an essential role in placebo analgesia. Modulation of pain perception by placebos depends on expectation, as shown in many studies (Kirsch, 1999; Price et al., 1999, 2008). Montgomery and Kirsch conducted one of the first studies in which expected pain levels were manipulated and directly measured (Montgomery and Kirsch, 1997). They used a …